The French in Egypt in 1798—1801: Failed Dialogue of Civilizations
The French in Egypt in 1798—1801: Failed Dialogue of Civilizations
Read   Download pdf

The article is devoted to the problem of cross-cultural interaction between the French and the Arabs during the Egyptian expedition of Napoleon Bonaparte 1798—1801. Using a comparative analysis of a wide range of French sources and Arab chronicles, the author comes to the conclusion that Bonaparte's attempt at an inter-civilizational dialogue with the Muslim population of Egypt ended in complete failure. Based on the stereotypical ideas about the Orient, common in the French literature of the Enlightenment, Napoleon tried to play in Egypt the same role that, according to the French philosophers, the Prophet Muhammad allegedly played in his time, namely, to take advantage of the “credulity” and “superstition” of the local population to subordinate it to his power. However, the Egyptians were very skeptical concerning Bonaparte's claims about the French army's commitment to Islam and his attempts to present himself as the Mahdi, the prophet of the last times. The daily practices of the occupiers, which openly contradicted the culture of Islam, completely alienated the Muslims from the French, which resulted not only in their mutual misunderstanding, but also in real hatred for each other.

About authors
Alexandre Tchoudinov
State Academic University for the Humanities. Senior Research Fellow of the Institute of World History RAS

1. Abd ar-Rakhman al-Dzhabarti. Egipet v period ehkspeditsii Bonaparta. M., 1962.

2. Vol'ter. Orleanskaya devstvennitsa. Magomet. Filosofskie povesti. M., 1971.

3. Kirillina S. A. Bunabardi-pasha i «voinstvo shajtana»: islam v politike Vostochnoj ehkspeditsii Bonaparta 1798—1801 gg. // Frantsuzskij ezhegodnik 2017: Frantsiya i Sredizemnomor'e v Novoe i Novejshee vremya. M., 2017.

4. Napoleon Bonapart. Egipetskij pokhod. SPb, 2007.

5. Prusskaya E. A. Antifrantsuzskoe dvizhenie protesta v Egipte 1798—1801 gg. // Frantsuzskij ezhegodnik 2016: Protestnye dvizheniya v ehpokhu Frantsuzskoj revolyutsii i Pervoj imperii. M., 2016.

6. Prusskaya E. A. Arabskie khroniki kak istochnik po istorii Egipetskoj ehkspeditsii Bonaparta // Frantsuzskij ezhegodnik 2010: Istochniki po istorii Frantsuzskoj revolyutsii XVIII v. i ehpokhi Napoleona. M., 2010.

7. Prusskaya E. A. Dosug frantsuzov v okkupirovannom Kaire 1798—1801 gg. // Frantsuzskij ezhegodnik 2018: Mezhkul'turnye kontakty v period inostrannoj okkupatsii. M., 2018.

8. Prusskaya E. Egyptian Campaign of Napoleon Bonaparte: Myths and Politics // ISTORIYA. 2020. Vol. 11. Issue 4 (90). URL: DOI: 10.18254/S207987840009709-8

9. Prusskaya E. A. Frantsuzskaya ehkspeditsiya v Egipet 1798—1801 gg.: vzaimnoe vospriyatie dvukh tsivilizatsij. M., 2016.

10. Russo Zh.-Zh. Ob obschestvennom dogovore. Traktaty. M., 1998.

11. Said Eh. Orientalizm. Zapadnye kontseptsii Vostoka. SPb., 2006.

12. Chudinov A. V. Vtoroe Kairskoe vosstanie: 20 marta — 21 aprelya 1800 g. // Frantsuzskij ezhegodnik 2015: K 225-letiyu Frantsuzskoj revolyutsii. M., 2015.

13. Chudinov A. V. Zabytaya armiya. Frantsuzy v Egipte posle Bonaparta. 1799—1800. M., 2019.

14. Chudinov A. V. Terror Frantsuzskoj revolyutsii na zemle Egipta 1798—1801 gg. // Izv. Ural. feder. un-ta. Ser. 2: Gumanitar. nauki. 2020. T. 22. № 3 (200).

15. Al-Jabarti’s Chronicle of the First Seven Months of the French Occupation of Egypt. Leiden, 1975.

16. Boudon J.-O. La campagne d’Égypte. P., 2018.

17. El-Turk N. Histoire de l’expédition française en Egypte. P., 1839.

18. Histoire scientifique et militaire de l'expédition française en Égypte. 10 vols. P., 1830—1836.

19. La Jonquière C. de. L’expédition d’Égypte. P., 2003. T. 2.

20. Laissus Y. L’Égypte, une aventure savante: avec Bonaparte, Kléber, Menou, 1798—1801. P., 1998.

21. Laurens H. Les origines intellectuelles de l'expédition d'Égypte. L'orientalisme islamisant en France (1698—1798). Istanbul; P., 1987.

22. Louca A. Repenser l’expédition d’Égypte // L’expédition d’Égypte, une entreprise des Lumières 1798—1801. P., 1999.

23. Mémoires de madame de Rémusat (1802—1808). T. 1. P., 1880.

24. Savary C.-E. Lettres sur l'Égypte, où l'on offre le parallèle des mœurs anciennes et modernes de ses habitans. 3 vol. P., 1785—1786.

25. Turc N. Chronique d’Egypte 1798—1804. Le Caire, 1950.

26. Vivant Denon D. Voyage dans la Basse et la Haute Egypte pendant les campagnes du général Bonaparte. P., 1802.

27. Volney C.-F. Voyage en Syrie et en Égypte pendant les années 1783, 1784 et 1785. 2 vol. P., 1787.

Полная версия доступна только подписчикам
Подпишитесь прямо сейчас