The Rural Agricultural Neighbors’ Communities: Logic vs History
The Rural Agricultural Neighbors’ Communities: Logic vs History
Read   Download pdf

Rural neighbors’ communities are observed in various periods in many countries. Usually they are understood as the survival of primordial social structures, as the remnants of a tribal system, which allegedly was peculiar to human beings from the very beginning of social history. This community theory was based on: 1) some misinterpreted contemporary (for the 19th century) remnants of communality (in Germany, Russia and India); 2) research on the tribal society of American Indians (L.G. Morgan) and 3) on the logic, on the deep persuasion that a man was primordially a community member and only after some time and development acquired individualistic notions. This concept was perceived by K. Marx and F. Engels and, therefore, became the indisputable dogma in the Soviet and, unfortunately, in some Post-Soviet historical and theoretical historical studies. The author of the article shows groundlessness of such kinds of ar-guments and reveals his own concept of formation of rural agricultural communities in various countries as institutions, providing the formation and functioning of political and economic systems of class (stratified, developed) society. They had various forms depending on their composition: they were rather composed with the lower social stratum (peasantry), or they included privileged people as well, and on their main functions: securing of rights or of their obligations. Periodical redistributions of land, if any, accordingly, were of two types: based on sharing common property, or on usages of distribution of rents and revenues.

Factual material in support of this concept is contained in the author’s previous works over the past half century (see References).

About authors
Leonid Alaev
Senior Research Fellow of the Department of Oriental History of the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences

1. Alaev L.B. Southern India: Socio-Economical History of 14th – 18th centuries. Moscow: Nauka, 1964 (in Russian).

2. Alaev L.B. The Social Structure of Indian Villages. Moscow: Nauka, Glavnaia redaktsiia vostochnoi literatury, 1976 (in Russian).

3. L.B. Alayev: Community in his life. A history of several research ideas in documents and materials. Moscow: Vostochnaia literatura, 2000 (in Russian).

4. Alaev L.B. Rural community: “A novel, inserted into history”. A critical analysis of theories of community, of historical evidences of its development and its role in a stratified society. Moscow: Lenand, 2016 (in Russian).

5. Baden-Powell B.H. Origin and Development of Village Communities in India. Moscow: I.N. Kushnerev and Co, 1900 (Second ed. Moscow: Lenand/URSS, 2010 (in Russian).

6. Vasiliev L.S. The Traditional East and the Marxian socialism. The Phenomenon of Eastern Despotism. Structure of Ruling and Power. Moscow: Vostochnaia literatura, 1993. P. 143–176 (in Russian).

7. Vasiliev L.S. The General History. Vols. 1–2. Moscow: Vysshaya Shkola, 2007 (in Russian).

8. A City in the formational development of Eastern countries. Moscow: Glavnaia redaktsiia vostochnoi literatury, 1990 (in Russian).

9. Grinin L.E. The philosophy and sociology of history: some regularities of the human history. Pts I–III. Volgograd: Uchitel, 1995–1996 (in Russian).

10. Grinin L.E., Korotayev A.V. Social macroevolution. The World System Genesis and transformations. Moscow: LKI/URSS, 2009. (in Russian).

11. Gurevich A.Ya. From the history of property stratification in the process of feudal development in England. Srednie Veka. Studies on Medieval and Early Modern History. VII. Moscow: Nauka, 1955 (in Russian).

12. Gurevich A.Ya. Feudalism on historians’ trial or Mediaval peasant Civilization revisited. Odysseus. A Man in History. Feudalism under a trial of historians. Moscow: Nauka, 2006. Pp. 11–49 (in Russian).

13. Gurevich A.Ya. Selected Works. The Ancient Germans. Vikings. Moscow–Saint-Petersburg: Center of humanitarian Initiatives; University Books, 2014 (in Russian).

14. Davydov A.Д. Afghan Village (rural community and stratification of peasantry). Moscow: Glavnaia redaktsiia vostochnoi literatury, 1969 (in Russian).

15. Danilov A.I. Problems of agrarian history of the Early Medieval Ages in German historiography of the end of 19th – beginning of 20th centuries. Moscow: Nauka, 1958 (in Russian).

16. Danilova L.V. Essays of the history of land holdings and economy in Novgorod region in the 14th –15th centuries. Moscow: Nauka, 1955 (in Russian).

17. Danilova L.V. Rural community in Russia. Moscow: Nauka, 1996 (in Russian).

18. History of peasantry in Europe. Epoch of feudalism. Vol. I. Formation of feudal-dependant peasantry. Moscow: Nauka, 1985 (in Russian).

19. Kabo V.R. Primordial pre-agricultural community. Moscow: Nauka, 1986 (in Russian).

20. Krasnyak O.A. All-World history. Training aid. Moscow: LIBROKOM/URSS, 2009 (in Russian).

21. Marx K., Engels F. Works. Second edition. Vols. 1–50. Moscow: Gospolitizdat, 1955–1981 (in Russian).

22. Maurer G.L. Introduction to the history of communal, homesteads, rural and urban settlements and social power. Moscow, 1880 (Sec. ed. Moscow: Krasand/URSS, 2011 (in Russian).

23. Neusykhin A.I. Beginnings of the dependent peasantry as a class of feudal society in Western Europe of 6th – 8th centuries. Moscow: Nauka, 1956 (in Russian).

24. Nureyev R.M. Asiatic mode of production as an economic system. The Phenomenon of Eastern Despotism. Structure of Ruling and Power. Moscow: Vostochnaia literatura, 1993. Pp. 62–142 (in Russian).

25. Pyankow A.P. Rural communities in North-Eastern Europe. Year-book on agrarian history of Eastern Europe. 1961. Riga, 1963. Pp. 100–107 (in Russian).

26. Rashkovsky E.B. “Asiatic mode of production” as a historiographical problem. Source-studies and historiography in the world of humanitarian knowledge. In honour of S.O. Shmidt. Moscow, 2002. Рp. 403–405 (in Russian).

27. Rashkovsky E.B. Once more about civilizational discourse: an attempt to explain myself. World Economy and International Relations. 2010. No. 1. Pp. 98–102 (in Russian).

28. Rashkovsky E.B. Social myth and development (Reflections over Alaev’s book about rural community. World Economy and International Relations. 2018. No. 4. Pp. 103–108 (in Russian).

29. Reisner I.M. Development of feudalism and formation of the afghans’ state. Moscow: AN SSSR, 1954 (in Russian).

30. Semyonov Yu.I. On typology of stages of communities’ development in ethnography. The problems of typology in ethnography. Moscow: Institute of Ethnography, 1979 (in Russian).

31. Semyonov Y.I. Economic ethnology. Moscow: IEA, 1993 (in Russian).

32. Semyonov Yu.I. Politarian (“Asiatic”) mode of production: its essence and place in the history of mankind and of Russia. Philosophico-historical essays. Moscow: Volshebnyi kluch, 2008 (in Russian).

33. Sovetov V.P. A problem of the share-landholding in Europe. A paper in the VII International congress of anthropological and ethnographic sciences. Moscow, 1964 (in Russian).

34. Filippov I.S. Mark. Great Russian Encyclopedia. Vol. 19. 2011(1). Pp. 150–151 (in Russian)

35. Filippov I.S. Mark. Great Russian Encyclopedia. Vol. 19. 2011(2). Pp. 151 (in Russian)

36. Fursov A.I. Peasantry: Problems of Social Philosophy and social Theory. The Peasantry in Social Systems. Scientific-analytical journal «Обозреватель–Observer». 2012. No. 6. Pp. 69–89; No. 7. Pp. 76–98 (in Russian).

37. Fustel de Coulanges. L’Histoire des institutions politiques de l’ancienne France. Vol. IV (in Russian).

38. Baden-Powell B.H. The Indian Village Community: Examined with Reference to the Physical, Ethnographic and Historical Conditions of the Provinces; Chiefly on the Basis of the Revenue-Settlement Records and District Manuals. London: Longmans, Green and Co. 1896.

39. Campbell G. Modern India: a Sketch of the System of Civil Government. London, 1852.

40. Hanssen G. Die Gehöferschaften (Erbgenossenschaften) im Regierungsbezirk Trier. Agrarhistorische Abhandlungen. Bd. I. Berlin, 1863.

41. Lamprecht K. Deutsches Wirtschaften im Mittelalter. Bd. I–II. Leipzig, 1885–1886.

42. Wilks M. Historical Sketches of the South of India. London: Longman, 1810.

Полная версия доступна только подписчикам
Подпишитесь прямо сейчас