Humanitarian influence in foreign policy revisited: resources, channels, infrastructures
Humanitarian influence in foreign policy revisited: resources, channels, infrastructures
Read   Download pdf
The paper deals with a problem of conceptualization of humanitarian influence in international relations. It argues the existent concepts such as soft power and public diplomacy are not sufficient for complex research of humanitarian dimension of foreign policy. Theoretical limitations of soft power concept are unearthed. The paper introduces the concept of humanitarian policy and describes the structure of humanitarian influence process. A classification of major humanitarian policy channels is introduced comprising public diplomacy, education and socialization, norms and standards, international aid, mass media, lobbyism, and regime change. Reference is made to the fact that as a matter of actual practice hybrid channels and tools of influence have the upper hand. For instance, international aid is being conditioned upon political steps by a government of a target country, opening up internal market to corporations from a donor-state, adaptation of certain technical standards, purchasing of foreign technical equipment, etc. The typology of humanitarian policy resources is introduced comprising infrastructural, diplomatic, sociocultural, regulatory, and ideological types of resources. Strategy and tactics of state humanitarian policy is defined not as much by abstract conceptions and doctrines as by availability certain types of resources.   
About authors
Vyacheslav Sutyrin
vice-rector for international affairs
State Academic University for the Humanities (GAUGN)

1. Aksartova S. (2009) Promoting Civil Society or Diffusing NGOs. Heydemann S., Hemmack D. (eds.) Globalization, Philanthropy, and Civil Society. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press, pp. 160–191.

2. Andreev A.L. (2016) “Myagkaya sila”: aranzhirovki smy`slov v rossijskom ispolnenii [“Soft Power”: Russian Arrangements of Meanings]. Polis. Politicheskie issledovaniya, no. 5, pp.122–133.

3. Barsenkov A.S. (2015) Prodvizhenie pravozashhitnoj problematiki kak jelement “mjagkogo” vozdejstvija stran Zapada na gosudarstva soclagerja v gody “holodnoj vojny” [Human rights promotion as an element of soft influence of the Western countries upon socialist bloc states in the Cold war years]. Primenenie “zhestkoj” i “mjagkoj” sily vo vneshnepoliticheskih celjah [The use of “hard” and “soft” power for foreign policy purposes]. A.A.Kokoshina, An.A.Gromyko (eds.). Moscow: Izd-vo Moskovskogo universiteta, pp.316–333.

4. Burlyuk O., Shapovalova N. (2017) “Veni, vidi, …  vici?” EU performance and two faces of conditionality towards Ukraine. East European Politics, vol.33, no.1, pp. 36–55.

5. China's Impact On The U.S. Education System (2019) Staff Report of Permanent Subcommittee On Investigations. United States Senate ('s%20Impact%20on%20the%20US%20Education%20System.pdf.).

6. Collins R. (2015) “Balkanizacija” ili “amerikanizacija”: geopoliticheskaja teorija jetnicheskih izmenenij [”Balkanization” or “Americanization”: A Geopolitical Theory of Ethnic Change]. Makroistorija: Ocherki teorii bol'shoj dlitel'nosti. Moscow: URSS: Lenand. pp.131–195.

7. Cooper R. (2004) ‘Hard power, soft power and the goals of diplomacy’. D. Held, M. Koenig-Archibugi (eds.) American Power in the 21st Century. Cambridge: Polity Press, pp.167–180.

8. Cull N. (2008a) Public Diplomacy: Taxonomies and Histories. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, vol. 616.

9. Cull N. (2008b) Public diplomacy: The evolution of a phrase. N.Snow, P.Taylor (eds.) The Handbook of Public Diplomacy. London, Routledge.

10. Cull N. (2020) Public Diplomacy: Seven lessons for its future from its past. Branding and Public Diplomacy, no.6, pp.10–17.

11. Duverger M. (2018) Politicheskie partii [Political Parties]. Moscow: Akademicheskij proekt.

12. Ferguson N. (2003) Power. Foreign Policy, no. 134, pp.18–24.

13. Fursenko A.A. (2016) Dinastija Rokfellerov [Rockefeller Dynasty]. Moscow: Izdatel'skij dom “Delo” RANHiGS, pp. 248–260; 315–320.

14. Ganoshhenko A.A. (2017) “Mjagkaja sila”: dobrovol'noe vzaimodejstvie i dostup k resursam [Soft power: voluntarily interaction and access to resources]. Mezhdunarodnaja zhizn', no. 8, pp.175–188.

15. Gromyko An.A. (2014) “Mjagkaja sila” i sila prava: k postanovke problem [Soft power and power of law: Towards problem definition]. Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta. Serija 25. Mezhdunarodnye otnoshenija i mirovaja politika, no.3, pp. 3–17.

16. Hall T. (2010) A Critical Examination of Soft Power as an Analytical Category. The Chinese Journal of International Politics, vol. 3, pp. 189–211.

17. Hejfec L.S., Hejfec V.L. (2019) Komintern i Latinskaja Amerika: ljudi, struktury, reshenija [Comintern and Latin America: people, structures, solutions]. Moscow: Politicheskaja jenciklopedija, pp.7–13.

18. Hrustalev M.A. (2015) Analiz mezhdunarodnyh situacij i politicheskaja jekspertiza [Analysis of international situations and political expertise]. Moscow: Aspekt-press.

19. Huntington S. (1973) Transnational Organizations in World Politics. World Politics, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 333–368.

20. Katzenstein M. (1996) The Culture of National Security: Norms and Identity in World Politics. Columbia Univ. Press.

21. Kelley J. (2009) Between “Take-offs” and “Crash Landings”: Situational Aspects of Public Diplomacy. N.Snow, P.Taylor (eds.). Routledge Handbook of Public Diplomacy. London: Routledge.

22. Layne C. (2010) The unbearable lightness of soft power. Soft Power and US Foreign Policy Theoretical, Historical and Contemporary Perspectives. Ed. by Parmar I., Cox M. New York: Routledge.

23. Lukes S. (2005) Power and the battle for hearts and minds. Journal of International Studies, vol. 33, pp. 477–493.

24. Mann M. (2018) Istochniki social'noj vlasti [Sources of Social Power]. T.2, kn.1. Moscow: Izdatel'skij dom “Delo” RANHiGS.

25. Matsuda T. (2007) Soft Power and Its Perils: U.S. Cultural Policy in Early Postwar Japan and Permanent Dependency. Stanford: Stanford Univ. Press.

26. Nejmark M.A. (2016) Dilemmy “mjagkoj” i “zhestkoj” sily: k urokam ukrainskogo krizisa. Problemy postsovetskogo prostranstva [Dilemmas of soft and hard power: lessons of the Ukrainian crisis], no. 1, pp.5–37.

27. Nye J. (2008) Public Diplomacy and Soft Power. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, vol. 616, pp. 94–109.

28. Parmar I. (2012) Foundations of the American Century: The Ford, Carnegie, and Rockefeller Foundations in the Rise of American Power. New York: Columbia Univ. Press.

29. Parmar I. (2018) Transnational elite knowledge networks: Managing American hegemony in turbulent times. Security Studies, no. 3, pp. 532–564.

30. Pimenova E.V. (2017) Zakat “mjagkoj sily”? Jevoljucija teorii i praktiki soft power [Soft power decline? Evolution of soft power theory and practice]. Vestnik MGIMO-Universiteta, no. 1, pp. 57–66.

31. Pisarska K. (2016) The Domestic Dimension of Public Diplomacy: Evaluating Success through Civil Engagement. Palgrave Macmillan.

32. Scott-Smith G. (2008) Mapping the undefinable: Some thoughts on the relevance of exchange programs within international relations theory. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, vol. 616, pp. 181.

33. Smirnov V.A. (2018) “Bor'ba integracij” na postsovetskom prostranstve: gumanitarnoe izmerenie [Competition of integrations in the Post-Soviet space: humanitarian dimension]. Sovremennaja Evropa, no. 6, pp.51–61.

34. Soft Power and Diplomacy (2020) B.Heing. New York: Greenhaven Publishing.

35. Sutyrin V.V. (2020) Transformacija Vostochnogo partnerstva ES posle 2014 goda [EU Eastern Partnership transformation after 2014]. Sovremennaja Evropa, no. 2, pp. 111–122.