Myths and problems of forestry reform in Russia
Myths and problems of forestry reform in Russia

Situation analysis demonstrates that several forest management models coexist in Russia. One of them is the model set by the Russian Forest Code (2006), it is likely to sustain at areas leased for large logging companies for the long term. Some initial signs of more intensified forest management are visible there. Another model is typical extensive model – ‘wood mining’. This system evolves back to the one used to exist in Soviet times. There is an ambition to revitalize state-owned forest management enterprises or / and the state-owned all Russia wide corporation responsible for reforestation and logging at areas which are not leased for private companies. Forest data is largely absent and existing one is unavailable for state or public control. Funds available for forest management are misused. Federal forest management bodies ignore the fact that lack of available timber resources is due to lack of effective reforestation. Reforestation methods in use and those used in the past do not ensure establishment of economically valuable forest stands to replace those logged or burned.      Reforestation is focused on production of plantlets and planting with no weeding and thinning of planted or natural young stands. Criteria to assess success of reforestation based on species composition are not developed and not established. Imitation of reforestation does not help to solve the problem of economical values degradation of secondary forests, including those on the most productive zone – Central European Russia. Authorities ignore exceptional values of intact forest landscapes for preservation of biodiversity and global climate change prevention. In 7 years since the Russian Forest Policy has been approved not a single National Forest heritage site has been established to contribute to development of the fund of forests to be preserved from economic development. Authors conclude that despite strategic documents approved in 2013–2018 forest management authorities continue supporting extensive forest management and make no substantial steps towards transition to more intensified forest management. One of the first steps should be calculation of rent fee based on rented area, but not on a volume of logged timber

About authors

1. Aksenov D.Å., Dobrynin D.V., Dubinin M.Yu.,. Egorov À.V,. Isaev À.S., Karpachevsky M.L., Lesdadius L.G., Potapov P.V., Purekhovsky A.Zh., Turubanova S.À., Yaroshenko A.Yu. (2003) Atlas malonarushennykh lesnykh territory Rossii [Atlas of Intact Forest landscapes in Russia]. Moscow: MSOES.

2. Chuvasov Å.V. (2018) Istoshenie resursov drevesiny duba mongolskogo i yasenia manchzhurskogo v Primorskom krae [Depletion of Mongolian Oak Timber Resources in the Primorsky Kray]. Vladivostok: World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) (

3. Diterle G., Kushlin A. (2004) Kluchevye problemy reform lesnoy politiki v Rossii [Key Challenges of the Forest Policy in Russia]. Ustoychivoe lesopol'sovanie, no. 4, pp. 18–31.

4. Dobrynin D. (2019) Upravlenie gosudarstvennymi lesami v Finlyandii i Shvetsii [State Forest management in Finland and Sweden]. Ustoychivoe lesopol'sovanie, no. 2, pp. 14–17.

5. Gerasimov Y., Senko S., Karjalainen N. (2013) Prospects of forest road infrastructure development in northwest Russia with proven Nordic solutions. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 758–774 (

6. Havimo M., Monkonen P., Lopatin E., Dahlin B. (2017) Optimising forest road planning to maximise the mobilisation of wood biomass resources in Northwest Russia. Biofuels, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 501–514, DOI: 10.1080/17597269.2017.1302664

7. Kobyakov Ê., Shmatkov N., Tugova Ê. (2018) Novyi zakon o zashitnykh lesakh: vozmozhnye negativnye posledstviya [New Law on Protective Forests: possible negative results]. Ustoychivoe lesopol'sovanie, no. 4, pp. 29–31.

8. Kokko D. (2020) Leskhozy mogut spekulirovat drevesinoy pod pokrovitelstvom Ministerstva prirodnykh resursov Novgorodskoy oblasti [Forest management Units May Illegally Trade Timber under Patronage of the Ministry of natural Resources of the Novgorod Region]. January 10. (

9. Lesnoy fond Rossii (2003) [State Forest fund of Russia] (data from the state forest assessment by January 1, 2003). Sourcebook. Moscow: VNIILM.

10. Malets O. (2015) When Transnational Standards Hit the Ground: Domestic Regulations, Compliance Assessment and Forest Certification in Russia. Journal Environ. Policy Plan, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 332–359 ( 1523908X.2014.947922).

11. Men Ì.À., Morokhoeva I.P. (2020) Otchet o resultatakh kontrolnogo meropriyatiya “Proverka effektivnosti ispolzovaniya lesnykh resursov i budgetnykh sredstv, napravlennykh na ispolnenie polnomochiy Rossiiskoy Federatsii v oblasti lesnykh otnosheniy v 2016–2018 i istekshem periode 2019 goda” [The Report on Results of Auditing of Forest Resources Use Effectiveness and Effectiveness of Use of Budget Funds Allocated to Support Russian Federation Authorities in the Field of Forest management in 2016–2018 and a Part of 2019] (in collaboration with auditing bodies of the regions of the Russian Federation) (

12. Naumov V., Angelstam P., Elbakidze M. (2016) Barriers and bridges for intensified wood production in Russia: Insights from the environmental history of a regional logging frontier. Forest Policy and Economics, vol. 66, pp. 1–10.

13. Nilsson S., Shvidenko A. (1998) Is Sustainable Development of the Russian Forest Sector Possible? IUFRO Occasional Paper, no. 11.

14. Nordberg M., Angelstam P., Elbakidze M., Axelsson R. (2013) From logging frontier towards sustainable forest management: experiences from boreal regions of North-West Russia and North. Scandinavian Journal Forest Research, vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 797–810.

15. Pisarenko À.I., Strakhov V.V. (2004) Lesnoe khoziaystvo Rossii: ot ispolzovaniya k upravleniyu [Forestry in Russia: from use to management]. Moscow: “Yurisprudentsiya?.

16. Pisarenko A.I., Strakhov V.V. (1996) Socio-economic assessment of the Russian boreal forests. Working Paper 96-58 Laxenburg, Austria: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis.

17. Position of WWF Russia and Greenpeace on Spawning Protection Forest Belts and Their Importance for Valuable Fish Species Preservation (2019) Sustainable Forestry, no. 1, pð. 2–3.

18. Romanov Å.Ì., Eremin N.V., Nureeva Ò.V. (2007) Sostoyanie i problemy vosproizvodstva lesov Rossii [State-of-Arts in Forest Regeneration in Russia]. Vestnik Mariyskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta, Seria: Les, Ecologia, Prirodopol'zovanie, no. 1, pð. 5–14.

19. Romanyk B.D. (2013) Sozdanie Strategii razrabotki systemy lesokhozayistvennykh normativov dlya Sredne-taezhnogo lesnogo rainona Severo-Zapada Rossii dlya vnedreniya modeli ustoychivogo intensivnogo lesnogo khozyaistva [Development of the Strategy for Development of Forest Management Normatives for Middle-Taiga Forest Are of the Russian North-West to Support Sustainable Intensive Forest Management Model]. Strategiya razrabotki systemy lesokhozayistvennykh normativov dlya Sredne-taezhnogo lesnogo rainona Severo-Zapada Rossii dlya vnedreniya modeli ustoychivogo intensivnogolesnogo khozyaistva [Strategy for Development of Forest Management Normatives for Middle-Taiga Forest Are of the Russian North-West to Support Sustainable Intensive Forest Management Model]. Roundtable proceedings, March 18, St. Petersburg / compiled by N. Shmatkov. Moscow: Worldwide Fund for Nature (WWF), pp. 31–42.

20. Sidorova Ì., Trifonova P., Chebyshev F. (2016) Les zakonchilsya [Timber is Finished]. Lesnaya Industriya, no. 12, pp. 17–25 (http://www.lesindustry. ru/issues/li_104/V_Rossii_nastupil_defitsit_drevesnogo_sirya_1378/ ).

21. Shvarts Å. (2018) Chem glubzhe v les, tem menshe export [Far into the Woods, less Timber Export]. Commersant, 12.11 (https://www.kommersant. ru/doc/3797639).

22. Shvarts E.A., Shmatkov N.Ì., Kobyakov Ê.N. (2015) Analys gosudarstvennoi programmy “Razvitie lesnogo khozyaistva na 2013–2020” i recomendatsii po ee sovershenstvovaniyu [Analysis of the Federal Funding Program “Forest Management Development in 2013–2020” and Recommendations for Its Improvement”]. Ustoychivoe lesopol'sovanie, no. 1, pp. 2–9.

23. Trishkin M., Goltsev V., Tolonen T., Lopatin E., Zyadin A., Karjalainen T. (2017) Economic efficiency of the energy wood chip supply chain from Russian Karelia to Finland. Finland Biofuels, 07/04, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 411–420.

24. Tysiachniouk M.S., McDermott C.L. (2016) Forest certification with Russian characteristics. Forest Policy Economics, vol. 62, pp. 43–53.

25. Vainio T. (2001) 4.3.3 Fire Situation in Finland. Global Forestry Fire Assessment, 1990–2000 (

26. World Bank (1997) Russia – Forest policy during transition (English). A World Bank country study. Washington DC; World Bank (https://l.facebook. com/l.php?

27. Yaroshenko À.Yu., Potapov P.V., Turubanova S.À. (2001) Malonarushennye lesnye territorii Evropeiskogo severa Rossii [Intact Forest Landscapes of the Russian European North]. Moscow: Greenpeace Russia.

Полная версия доступна только подписчикам
Подпишитесь прямо сейчас